Industrial Revolution – New technologies
Industrial Revolution was one of the biggest transition in world history in terms of Technology. It was started around mid 18th century and lasted almost till mid 19th century. further below we will discuss all the aspects of IR.
The Term ‘INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
First used by Georges Michelet in France and Friedrich Engels in Germany. Philosopher and economist Arnold Toynbee used it the first time in English.
Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialization. Transformation of industry and the economy in Britain between the 1780s and 1850s. Strongly associated with new machinery and technologies in Britain. The second Industrial Revolution – after the 1850s.
Towns, Trade and Finance
By 1800, many towns in Europe were growing in the area and in population. Out of the 19 European cities whose population doubled between 1750 and 1800, 11 were in Britain. By 1800, the center of global trade had shifted from the Mediterranean ports of Italy and France to the Atlantic ports of Holland and Britain. London replaced Amsterdam as the principal source of loans for international trade. London also became the center of a triangular trade network that drew in England, Africa, and the West Indies.
The Abraham Darby family, 1st Darby – Invention of the blast furnace in 1709, 2nd Darby – Wrought iron from pig iron. 3rd Darby – In 1779, the first iron bridge in the world (Coalbrookdale, over the river Severn).
Output increased 4 times between 1800 and 1830 The Textile Industry From the 1700s, the country had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at great cost. Till the early 1800s, spinning had been very slow (10 spinners for 1 weaver) Production gradually shifted from the homes to factories.
New Technologies in the Textile Industry
The flying shuttle loom – designed by John Kay in 1733 made it possible to weave broader fabrics in less time.
The spinning jenny – A machine made by James Hargreaves in 1765 on which a single person could spin several threads of yarn simultaneously.
The power loom – invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787. This was easy to work. It could be used to weave any kind of material.
Steam power was first used in mining industries. Thomas Savery built a model of steam engine called the Miner’s Friend in 1698 to drain mines. After that Steam Power become a reliable and inexpensive source. In 1840, British steam engines were generating more than 70% of all European horsepower.
Canals were initially built to transport coal to cities. The first English canal, the Worsley Canal (1761) made by James Brindley Prefer Canal over Road. In the period known as the ‘canal-mania’, from 1788 to 1796, there were another 46 new projects and over the next 60 years, more than 4,000 miles of canal were built. In the 1830s, due to several problems like Frost, Flood etc. The Railways now appeared as a convenient alternative.
The invention of the railways took the entire process of industrialization to a second stage. In 1801, Richard Trevithick had designed an engine called the ‘Puffing Devil’ that pulled trucks around the mine. In 1814, the railway engineer George Stephenson constructed a locomotive, called ‘The Butcher’, that could pull a weight of 30 tons up a hill at 4 mph. The first railway line connected the cities of Stockton and Darlington in 1825, a distance of 9 miles that was completed in two hours at speeds of up to 24 kph.